Ունե՞ք ԽՍՀՄ-ից մնացած ․ ․ ․

Եթե դուք ունեք պահած մետաղադրամներ ԽՍՀՄ տարիներից, ուշադիր նյաեք դրանց, գուցե դուք էլ դառնաք միլիոնատեր։

5 կոպեկ 1924 թ., գինը — 12 $

5 կոպեկ 1927 թ., գինը — 100-120 $

5 կոպեկ 1929 թ., գինը — 20 $

5 կոպեկ 1933 թ., գինը — 550 $

5 կոպեկ 1934 թ., գինը — 85 — 100 $

5 կոպեկ 1935 թ. գինը —90 $

5 կոպեկ 1935 թ. գինը — 25 $

5 կոպեկ 1936 թ., գինը — 10 $

5 կոպեկ 1937 թ., գինը — 15 $

5 կոպեկ 1945 թ., գինը — 15 $

5 կոպեկ 1947 թ., գինը — 900 $

5 կոպեկ 1951 թ., գինը — 10 $

5 կոպեկ 1958 թ., գինը — 1200 $

5 կոպեկ 1965 թ., գինը — 17 $

5 կոպեկ 1966 թ., գինը — 20$

5 կոպեկ 1969 թ., գինը — 16 $

5 կոպեկ 1970 թ., գինը — 100 $

5 կոպեկ 1971 թ., գինը — 15 $

5 կոպեկ 1972 թ., գինը — 15 $

5 կոպեկ 1990 թ., գինը — 80 $

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A few authors position all thirty lanthanides and actinides in the two positions below yttrium (usually via footnote markers). This variant, which is stated in the 2005 Red Book to be the IUPAC-agreed version as of 2005 (a number of later versions exist, and the last update is from 1st Dec. 2018),[158][n 16] emphasizes similarities in the chemistry of the 15 lanthanide elements (La–Lu), possibly at the expense of ambiguity as to which elements occupy the two group 3 positions below yttrium, and a 15-column wide f block (there can only be 14 elements in any row of the f block).[n 17]

La-Ac and Lu-Lr

32-column periodic table, with bifurcated group 3
In this variant, group 3 bifurcates after Sc-Y into a La-Ac branch, and a Lu-Lr branch. This arrangement is consistent with the hypothesis that arguments in favour of either Sc-Y-La-Ac or Sc-Y-Lu-Lr based on chemical and physical data are inconclusive.[160] As noted, trends going down Sc-Y-La-Ac match trends in groups 1−2[161] whereas trends going down Sc-Y-Lu-Lr better match trends in groups 4−10.[147]

Groups included in the transition metals
The definition of a transition metal, as given by IUPAC, is an element whose atom has an incomplete d sub-shell, or which can give rise to cations with an incomplete d sub-shell.[162] By this definition all of the elements in groups 3–11 are transition metals. The IUPAC definition therefore excludes group 12, comprising zinc, cadmium and mercury, from the transition metals category.

Some chemists treat the categories «d-block elements» and «transition metals» interchangeably, thereby including groups 3–12 among the transition metals. In this instance the group 12 elements are treated as a special case of transition metal in which the d electrons are not ordinarily involved in chemical bonding. The 2007 report of mercury(IV) fluoride (HgF4), a compound in which mercury would use its d electrons for bonding, has prompted some commentators to suggest that mercury can be regarded as a transition metal.[163] Other commentators, such as Jensen,[164] have argued that the formation of a compound like HgF4 can occur only under highly abnormal conditions; indeed, its existence is currently disputed. As such, mercury could not be regarded as a transition metal by any reasonable interpretation of the ordinary meaning of the term.[164]

Still other chemists further exclude the group 3 elements from the definition of a transition metal. They do so on the basis that the group 3 elements do not form any ions having a partially occupied d shell and do not therefore exhibit any properties characteristic of transition metal chemistry.[165] In this case, only groups 4–11 are regarded as transition metals. Though the group 3 elements show few of the characteristic chemical properties of the transition metals, they do show some of their characteristic physical properties (on account of the presence in each atom of a single d electron).[55]

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