Կատաղի կռիվ հասարակական․․

Կատաղի կռիվ հասարակական տրանսպորտում. հարբած կնոջ ոչ ադեկվատ պահվածքը երթուղայինում Կատաղի կռիվ հասարակական տրանսպորտում. հարբած կնոջ ոչ ադեկվատ պահվածքը երթուղայինում Կատաղի կռիվ հասարակական տրանսպորտում. հարբած կնոջ ոչ ադեկվատ պահվածքը երթուղայինում Կատաղի կռիվ հասարակական տրանսպորտում. հարբած կնոջ ոչ ադեկվատ պահվածքը երթուղայինում

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lanthanum and actinium are commonly depicted as the remaining group 3 members.[146][n 12] It has been suggested that this layout originated in the 1940s, with the appearance of periodic tables relying on the electron configurations of the elements and the notion of the differentiating electron. The configurations of caesium, barium and lanthanum are [Xe]6s1, [Xe]6s2 and [Xe]5d16s2. Lanthanum thus has a 5d differentiating electron and this establishes it «in group 3 as the first member of the d-block for period 6».[147] A consistent set of electron configurations is then seen in group 3: scandium [Ar]3d14s2, yttrium [Kr]4d15s2 and lanthanum [Xe]5d16s2. Still in period 6, ytterbium was assigned an electron configuration of [Xe]4f135d16s2 and lutetium [Xe]4f145d16s2, «resulting in a 4f differentiating electron for lutetium and firmly establishing it as the last member of the f-block for period 6».[147] Later spectroscopic work found that the electron configuration of ytterbium was in fact [Xe]4f146s2. This meant that ytterbium and lutetium—the latter with [Xe]4f145d16s2—both had 14 f-electrons, «resulting in a d- rather than an f- differentiating electron» for lutetium and making it an «equally valid candidate» with [Xe]5d16s2 lanthanum, for the group 3 periodic table position below yttrium.[147] Lanthanum has the advantage of incumbency since the 5d1 electron appears for the first time in its structure whereas it appears for the third time in lutetium, having also made a brief second appearance in gadolinium.[148]

In terms of chemical behaviour,[149] and trends going down group 3 for properties such as melting point, electronegativity and ionic radius,[150][151] scandium, yttrium, lanthanum and actinium are similar to their group 1–2 counterparts. In this variant, the number of f electrons in the most common (trivalent) ions of the f-block elements consistently matches their position in the f-block.[152] For example, the f-electron counts for the trivalent ions of the first three f-block elements are Ce 1, Pr 2 and Nd 3.[153]

Lutetium and lawrencium
Periodic table 14LaAc form—Group 3 = Sc-Y-Lu-Lr.jpg
Lu and Lr below Y
In other tables, lutetium and lawrencium are the remaining group 3 members.[n 13] Early techniques for chemically separating scandium, yttrium and lutetium relied on the fact that these elements occurred together in the so-called «yttrium group» whereas La and Ac occurred together in the «cerium group».[147] Accordingly, lutetium rather than lanthanum was assigned to group 3 by some chemists in the 1920s and 30s.[n 14] Several physicists in the 1950s and ’60s favoured lutetium, in light of a comparison of several of its physical properties with those of lanthanum.[147] This arrangement, in which lanthanum is the first member of the f-block, is disputed by some authors since lanthanum lacks any f-electrons. It has been argued that this is not a valid concern given other periodic table anomalies—thorium, for example, has no f-electrons yet is part of the f-block.[154] As for lawrencium, its gas phase atomic electron configuration was confirmed in 2015 as [Rn]5f147s27p1. Such a configuration represents another periodic table anomaly, regardless of whether lawrencium is located in the f-block or the d-block, as the only potentially applicable p-block position has been reserved for nihonium with its predicted configuration of [Rn]5f146d107s27p1.[155][n 15]

Chemically, scandium, yttrium and lutetium (and presumably lawrencium) behave like trivalent versions of the group 1–2 metals.[157] On the other hand, trends going down the group for properties such as melting point, electronegativity and ionic radius, are similar to those found among their group 4–8 counterparts.[147] In this variant, the number of f electrons in the gaseous forms of the f-block atoms usually matches their position in the f-block. For example, the f-electron counts for the first five f-block elements are La 0, Ce 1, Pr 3, Nd 4 and Pm 5.[147]

Be the first to comment on "Կատաղի կռիվ հասարակական․․"

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published.


*