Շտապ. ժամեր առաջ. արտակարգ․․

Տղաները պարզապես ցանկանում էին իրենց ընկերուհուն կատակով նետել ծովը, բայց ամեն ինչ ավելի դաժան ավարտ ունեցավ (տեսանյութ)

 

 

 

 

 

 

There are some exceptions to this general rule. Gallium and germanium have higher electronegativities than aluminium and silicon respectively because of the d-block contraction. Elements of the fourth period immediately after the first row of the transition metals have unusually small atomic radii because the 3d-electrons are not effective at shielding the increased nuclear charge, and smaller atomic size correlates with higher electronegativity.[23] The anomalously high electronegativity of lead, particularly when compared to thallium and bismuth, is an artifact of electronegativity varying with oxidation state: its electronegativity conforms better to trends if it is quoted for the +2 state instead of the +4 state.[42]

Electron affinity
Main article: Electron affinity

Dependence of electron affinity on atomic number.[43] Values generally increase across each period, culminating with the halogens before decreasing precipitously with the noble gases. Examples of localized peaks seen in hydrogen, the alkali metals and the group 11 elements are caused by a tendency to complete the s-shell (with the 6s shell of gold being further stabilized by relativistic effects and the presence of a filled 4f sub shell). Examples of localized troughs seen in the alkaline earth metals, and nitrogen, phosphorus, manganese and rhenium are caused by filled s-shells, or half-filled p- or d-shells.[44]
The electron affinity of an atom is the amount of energy released when an electron is added to a neutral atom to form a negative ion. Although electron affinity varies greatly, some patterns emerge. Generally, nonmetals have more positive electron affinity values than metals. Chlorine most strongly attracts an extra electron. The electron affinities of the noble gases have not been measured conclusively, so they may or may not have slightly negative values.[45]

Electron affinity generally increases across a period. This is caused by the filling of the valence shell of the atom; a group 17 atom releases more energy than a group 1 atom on gaining an electron because it obtains a filled valence shell and is therefore more stable.[45]

A trend of decreasing electron affinity going down groups would be expected. The additional electron will be entering an orbital farther away from the nucleus. As such this electron would be less attracted to the nucleus and would release less energy when added. In going down a group, around one-third of elements are anomalous, with heavier elements having higher electron affinities than their next lighter congenors. Largely, this is due to the poor shielding by d and f electrons. A uniform decrease in electron affinity only applies to group 1 atoms.[46]

Metallic character
The lower the values of ionization energy, electronegativity and electron affinity, the more metallic character the element has. Conversely, nonmetallic character increases with higher values of these properties.[47

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